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List of Illustrations

The following figures © F.L.C. / ADAGP, Paris / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 2020: 1, 3, 4, 7-9, 12, 18, 22-24, 31-38, 43, 45-51, 54-55, 58, 61-73, 83, 86, 98, 100-101, 108, 117, 120, 123, 129-131, 133, 138, 140.

Published onApr 23, 2021
List of Illustrations

Figure 1: Le Corbusier’s sketch of the Open Hand symbol at Chandigarh. (Photograph courtesy of Maison de la Culture at Firminy and Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 2: The south exterior door of the Chapel Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 3: La main ouverte, lithograph, 23 August 1963. As in his architecture, Le Corbusier’s representations of the open hand suggest a dualistic notion of man’s mind in opposition to the world—or “la bête et la tête,” as he put it. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre lithographique, Zurich, n.d.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 4: Drawing of rock formations near La Chaux-de-Fonds. A reflection of Henri Provensal’s suggestion in L’Art de demain that crystalline rock formations could inspire the new “cubic” architecture he was advocating. (Source: Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier, Paris, 1960, p. 22.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 5: Bracket detail of the Fallet House, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1906-1907. In his first house design, Jeanneret included this one tentative expression of Provensal’s cubic aesthetic. (Source: E. Chavanne and M. Laville, “Les premières constructions de Le Corbusier,” in Werk, vol. 50, 1963, p. 483.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 6: Jeanneret’s annotation in Viollet-le-Duc’s Dictionnaire raisonné, vol. 1, Paris, 1854, inscribed 1908, p. 66. Jeanneret describes the rationalist lessons he had been receiving from Auguste Perret, such as the principle of concentrating on the structural “carcass” of a building. (Photograph by Paul Turner. Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 7: Design for Ateliers d’art, 1910, compared to the Fallet House bracket detail. Leaving Perret and returning to La Chaux-de-Fonds and L’Eplattenier, Jeanneret resumed Provensal’s abstract, cubic conception of design. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1910-29, p. 22.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 8: The Domino System. Visually and conceptually simple, though beset with constructional problems. For Jeanneret it represented a resolution of L’Eplattenier’s and Perret’s teachings. (Source: Oeuvre complète 1910-29, p. 23.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 9: The Domino System. (Source: Oeuvre complète 1910-29, p. 23.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 10: The standard, Hennebique System of reinforced-concrete construction. The opposite of the Domino design. Though structurally logical, it was unacceptable to Jeanneret from a formal and conceptual point of view. (Source: Paul Christophe, Le Béton armé et ses applications, Paris and Liege, 1902, p. 106.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 11: Music room of Matthey-Doret, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1906. (Photograph courtesy of Pierre M. Wasem.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 12: Le Corbusier drawing of architectural elements based on pine tree motifs, circa 1906. Pencil on sketchbook paper, 18.4 cm × 11.8 cm. (Photograph by Patricia Sekler. Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier, no. 2006.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 13: North entrance of Le Corbusier’s Maison Stotzer, La Chaux-de-Fonds; designed 1907-1908, constructed 1908. (Photograph by Patricia Sekler.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 14: Page from the “Nouvelle Section” de l’Ecole d’Art. Prospectus of 1912. The work of Le Corbusier’s students is at the bottom. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 15: Detail of the upper story of the main façade of Le Corbusier’s Villa Favre-Jacot, Le Locle, 1912-1913. (Photograph by Patricia Sekler.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 16: One of Le Corbusier’s studies for the Villa Schwob, La Chaux-de-Fonds. Architectural print, 40 cm × 89.5 cm, at bottom right: “le 14 juillet 1916 Ch E Jt.” (Photograph by Patricia Sekler. Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 17: Altar wall of the Chapelle indépendante at Cernier-Fontainemelon, 1907. (Photograph courtesy of Pierre M. Wasem.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 18: Le Corbusier’s oil painting, Le Bûcheron, 1931, illustrated in Le Corbusier, New World of Space, p. 56, bottom. The dimensions are given as 38¼″ × 57½“. (Courtesy of Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 19: Detail of page from Le Corbusier’s Le Poème de l’angle droit, Tériade Editeur, Paris, 1955. (Photograph by Patricia Sekler. Courtesy of José Luis Sert.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 20: Sgraffito by Le Corbusier, 1950. Plum-brown ink over verso of commercial card (Société d’Entreprises Industrielles et d’Etudes …), 5” × 4”. (Collection of Patricia Sekler.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 21: Brush and ink drawing of the Open Hand, by Le Corbusier, 1951, 13 13/16” × 10 14/16”. (Photograph by C. Todd Stuart. Courtesy of Costantino Nivola.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 22: A study for the Open Hand monument with open base, by Le Corbusier, 1951. Gouache on Ingres paper, 24 cm × 29 cm. Bottom right: “L-C 48-51 Chandigarh”; bottom middle: “Version C 51.” The double date was his method of indicating works based on previous themes. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier, no. 2346.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 23: One of Le Corbusier’s numerous compositions involving a hand, 1947. Pencil, ink, and colored crayons, 26.8 cm × 20.8 cm, on rear of letterhead: “24, Rue Nungesser & Coli (16e).” This was carried out as a sculpture; illustrated in Petit, Le Corbusier lui-même, p. 249, “1964. No. 43. La cathédrale.” (Courtesy of Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 24: Le Corbusier’s design for the armature and turning mechanism of the Open Hand monument, 1954. Ink and ballpoint pen on tracing paper, dated “12 août 54,” 29.5 cm × 42 cm. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier, no. 2342.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 25: Five views of the tip of a pine branch with buds, by Le Corbusier, circa 1906. Pencil on paper, 23.5 cm × 13.2-14 cm. (Photograph by Patricia Sekler. Private collection, La Chaux-de-Fonds.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 26: View from the garden of the east elevation of the Villa Schwob, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1916. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 27: Interior of the living room of the Villa Schwob, looking toward the large bay that opens onto the garden. (Photograph by M. Fernand Perret, La Chaux-de-Fonds.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 28: Rue Jacob from rooftop level, Paris VIe, a scene Le Corbusier knew intimately between 1917 and 1933. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 29: Amédée Ozenfant’s Flacon, guitare, verre et bouteilles à la table grise, 1920. (Photograph courtesy of Kunstmuseum, Basel, La Roche bequest.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 30: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret’s Composition à la guitare et à la lanterne, 1920. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 31: Plan of the La Roche-Jeanneret building site at Auteuil, September 1923. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 32: The wedding celebration group at 20 Rue Jacob, showing the Pastor Huguenin and Amédée Ozenfant holding flowers over the head of the bride and groom, Lotti and Albert Jeanneret. Le Corbusier is on the right of the group in winged collar. His present to his brother and sister-in-law was the Purist painting on the wall, entitled Grande nature morte des Indépendants. (Photograph courtesy of Kerstin Rääf.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 33: Model of the La Roche-Jeanneret houses, as exhibited in the Salon d’Automne, 1923. Le Corbusier’s final solution to the La Roche gallery was later modified. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 34: Lotti and Albert Jeanneret dining on the roof deck. (Photograph courtesy of Kerstin Rääf.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 35: The Jeanneret living room. (Photograph courtesy of Kerstin Rääf.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 36: North façade of the La Roche-Jeanneret houses nearing completion, late autumn 1924. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 37: Lotti Jeanneret’s bedroom. (Photograph courtesy of Kerstin Rääf.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 38: Temporary lighting in La Roche’s painting gallery, 1925. (Photograph courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 39: Bay view from La Roche’s domestic balcony toward the painting gallery. Here Le Corbusier is expressing the varied functional-symbolic curved and rectilinear elements, and therefore the sense of structure is suppressed. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 40: View from the opposite side of La Roche’s hallway showing the first-floor stair landing and the library above. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 41: Raoul La Roche seated in his painting gallery among the Cubist paintings of Juan Gris and the sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz. (Photograph courtesy of Thomas Speiser.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 42: The curved ramp in La Roche’s painting gallery. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 43: General view of the Quartier Moderne Frugès at Pessac. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 44: Demonstration of the cement-gun “gunite” technique for creating wall panels. Exposition des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1925. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 45: The construction site at Pessac, houses 49 to 54, 1925. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 46: Site plan for the original project of 130 dwellings near Pessac, 1924. Only the sector between the road and the railway was executed. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 47: The construction site of the Quartier Moderne Frugès in 1925, with the promotional signboard that was “later removed at the request of the local authority.” Note the conventional cement block infill that replaced the gunite panels. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 48: Plan and photograph of the experimental modulor house-type Maison du Tonkin in Bordeaux. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 49: The attached houses in a block, numbers 49-54, were the least expensive at the Quartier Moderne Frugès. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 50: The floor plans of the attached houses in a block, numbers 49-54, at the Quartier Moderne Frugès. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 51: The individual detached house, number 14, was the most expensive at the Quartier Moderne Frugès. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation le Corbusier.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 52: Pessac, the four-storied “skyscrapers,” as Le Corbusier called them, were also known negatively as “the sugar cubes,” because the patron who commissioned them made his millions from sugar. The area was also seen as a Sultan’s district, a harem, and less gloriously as a Moroccan settlement. Very Sachlich, these buildings could be seen the way Le Corbusier characterized the Existenzminimum. (Photograph by F. Yerbury, 1925. Courtesy of Architectural Association.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 53: Interior of Raoul La Roche’s bedroom, La Roche-Jeanneret houses, Auteuil, 1925. (Photograph courtesy of Architectural Association.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 54: “Useless consumer goods.” Le Corbusier’s caption: “Waste! I am not outraged because such things are bought. But I am deeply distressed to see Authority remaining indifferent in the face of such sacrilege: the time lost in manufacturing these tomfooleries! A healthy, aware, strong nation ought to say: enough!” (Source: Le Corbusier, The Radiant City, p. 94.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 55: “Useful consumer goods.” Le Corbusier’s caption: “Proof that a healthy turn of mind could lead us towards a general renewal of our material and spiritual economic systems. Try to work out the consequences: such an attitude could be far-reaching and pull us out of the hole we are in.” (Source: Le Corbusier The Radiant City, p. 95.) The emphasis on a nation’s health, guided by some Authority, which is left unclear, characterizes Le Corbusier’s classical notion of culture. Authority meant, perhaps, three different things: a modern Colbert, “The Minister of Public Works,” or “The Regulator.” [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 56: Bathroom, Villa Savoye, 1928-1931, opens off a bedroom and makes a Purist still-life from prosaic objects—the bathtub, wash basin, bidet, radiator, toilet, and light fixture—all unified by tiles and white paint. (Photograph by Charles Jencks.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 57: A Woman Lying with Curtains, 1930. Strong, bold curves of plump women fascinated Le Corbusier at this time. (Photograph courtesy of Heidi Weber.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 58: The Mundaneum, world museum, 1929, in the shape of a spiral pyramid, classifies all cultural growth in a linear manner. This scheme later gave way to the museum of unlimited growth, which was all on the same level. (Source: Oeuvre complete 1910-29, p. 193.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 59: “Euclidean geometry” at Chandigarh, 1956, in the General Assembly and High Courts (background). The perfect solids are here distorted and smashed into each other to give more emphasis to each architectural “word.” (Photograph by Romi Koshla.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 60: Elevations of the Fallet House, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1905. (Photograph by Charles Jencks.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 61: “The Cultural Pyramid,” drawing from Le Corbusier’s Précisions, Paris, 1930, p. 96. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 62: The dwelling in the landscape. This cross-section of the Corbusian city stresses the combination of personal privacy with community and harmony with nature. (Source: Le Corbusier, The Four Routes, p. 65.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 63: Trees as a medium between massive buildings and men. Le Corbusier’s caption contended that trees, being on a “human” scale, would prevent his towers from dwarfing passersby. His sketch, however, suggests that both buildings and trees will dominate—a rare example of Le Corbusier’s pencil being less convincing than his pen. (Source: Le Corbusier, The Radiant City, p. 221.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 64: Sketches for a worldwide urban system. On the left, a section of a linear industrial city, including an experimental low-density residential area of small houses. On the right, a glimpse of linear urbanization along the major arteries of economic activity. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1938-46, p. 75.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 65: Architecture reconciles individual liberty with collective power. (Source: Le Corbusier, Quand les cathédrales étaient blanches, Paris, 1937, p. 169.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 66: A City of Administration: The Plan Voisin for Paris, 1925, with eighteen skyscrapers and a superhighway for the Right Bank opposite the lie de La Cité. (Source: Le Corbusier, La Ville radieuse, Boulogne-sur-Seine, 1935, p. 207.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 67: Construction begins by decree. Le Corbusier’s drawing in 1929 of the decree he hoped the President of the French Republic would issue, ordering land mobilization and the Plan Voisin. The order never came. (Source: Le Corbusier, Précisions, Paris, 1930, p. 183.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 68: The Pyramid of Natural Hierarchies. Each trade or profession (I) elects its natural leaders (II). The heads of each trade (III) meet in an intertrade council (IV), which regulates the economic life of the nation. Assisted by a secretariat of experts (V), the intertrade council draws up the Plan. (Source: Le Corbusier, La Ville radieuse, p. 192.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 69: The residential district of the Radiant City. From the plan for Antwerp, 1933. (Source: Le Corbusier, La Ville radieuse, p. 284.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 70: Ground plan of the Radiant City. The place of honor at the center (A) belongs to housing. Other features include (B) hotels and embassies; (C) business center; (D) factories; (E) and (F) satellite cities, for example, the seat of government, a center for social studies. (Source: Le Corbusier, La Ville radieuse, p. 141.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 71: The National Center of Collective Festivals for 100,000 People. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1934-38, p. 93.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 72: Le Corbusier’s concept of Algiers as the point of exchange between Europe and Africa and the meeting place of European and Islamic cultures. (Source: Le Corbusier Oeuvre complète 1938–46, p. 44.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 73: Le Corbusier’s final plan for Algiers, the Directive Plan of 1942. On the left is the European center for business, government, and transportation; on the right, the Casbah and the Moslem center. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1938-46, p. 45.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 74: The southeast corner of the Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, 1950-1955. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.)Images [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 75: The northeast corner of the Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 76: The interior of the Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, looking toward the sanctuary and devotional statue. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 77: Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette, 1956-1959, from the south. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 78: Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette from the west. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 79: The internal courtyards of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 80: The 1964 model of St. Pierre, Firminy Vert. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 81: St. Pierre at Firminy Vert under construction, March 1974. (Photograph by Martin Purdy.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 82: Plan and section for a church project at Bologna, 1963. (Photograph courtesy of Glauco Gresleri.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 83: The sleeping area in the Salon d’Automne apartment, 1929. Machine-made, hard-edged, synthetic materials were used to imply a new world of luxury. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1929-34, p. 46.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 84: The Pavilion Suisse, Cité Universitaire, Paris, 1930-1932, has its main elevation facing open ground to the south and was built entirely of glass. (Photograph by John Winter.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 85: Detail of the Pavilion Suisse showing the external Venetian blinds added after World War II. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 86: The Cité de Refuge, Paris, 1929-1933, was built with a sealed façade, but without the inner skin and cooling system originally intended. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1929-34, p. 99.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 87: During World War II the damaged skin of the Cité de Refuge was patched up with anything that would reduce the glass area. (Photograph by John Winter.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 88: The main façade of the Cité de Refuge was reconstructed in the early 1950s with brise-soleil. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 89: Relief figure of the Modulor Man, Unité d’habitation, Marseilles, 1946-1952. Most of the concrete in the building is precast, but it was the rough in situ concrete that attracted attention. (Photograph by John Winter.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 90: The Maison de la Culture at Firminy Vert, 1961-1965, retains the massive concrete form of Le Corbusier’s buildings of the previous decade, but it shows a tendency toward another technology, with its roof suspended on steel cables. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 91: The steel roof of the Heidi Weber Pavilion, Zurich, 1963-1967, stands over the light and elegant enclosure below. (Photograph by Russell Walden.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 92: Design for an extension on top of the Maison Jaoul by Jacques Michel, from sketches by Le Corbusier. The contrast in technologies between the original house and the extension could not be more complete. (Redrawn from the original by John Winter.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 93: The broad location of Chandigarh on the map of India. (Drawing by Maxwell Fry.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 94: The context of the Chandigarh site. (Drawing by Maxwell Fry.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 95: Le Corbusier’s emerging plan for Chandigarh. (Drawing by Maxwell Fry.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 96: Le Corbusier’s office at Chandigarh. Standing left to right are Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew, Le Corbusier, Superintending Engineer G. C. Khanna, Chief Engineer P. L. Varma, and Maxwell Fry. (Photograph by Narindar Lamba, 1952.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 97: The working sector, as planned by Le Corbusier, with its legally protected boundaries. (Drawing by Maxwell Fry.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 98: Le Corbusier in his studio, 24 Rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Paris XVIe. “Pour Jane Drey [sic], avec mon amitié,” signed Le Corbusier, 12 December 1950. (Photograph by Maywald, Rue Jacob, Paris, May 1948.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 99: Le Corbusier’s inscription to Jane Drew’s copy of Modulor 2, January 1956. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 100: Le Corbusier’s collage, Woman with Open Hand, 1952. (Collection of Jane Drew.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 101: The Chandigarh “Family,” as depicted by Le Corbusier, 8 April 1952. (Collection of Jane Drew.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 102: Le Corbusier and Jane Drew on the grass at Chandigarh, 1951. (Photograph by Eulie Chowdbury.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 103: An aerial view of the V2 Capitol with rush hour traffic at 5 P.M. To the left is a segment of the Leisure Valley, to the right a commercial belt reserved for big offices, hotels, and so on, and in the background is Le Corbusier’s Capitol complex against the backdrop of the hills. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 104: An illustration of private housing conforming to “frame control” in Sector 22. In front is an unauthorized market, and under the tree a collection of cycle-rickshaw pullers awaiting customers. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 105: Public open space in an almost fully developed, medium-density area of Sector 18. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 106: Several residential units converted to commercial and business use, on the northeastern side of the V4 (bazaar street) in Sector 18. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 107: One of the many cycle-rickshaws in Chandigarh specially adapted for transporting mainly primary school children to and from school. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 108: The 7V’s at Chandigarh. (Source: L’Urbanisme des trois établissements humains, Paris, 1959, p. 44.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 109: Mixed traffic on the V2 Station/University. The transport of local goods in the city is largely by horse-drawn carts. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 110: One of the ways leading into the chowk of the city center. Any sense of enclosure between the two façades is lost, because of the large distance between them. The block containing most of the banks to the left generates little interest on the street level. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 111: The covered walkway on the vehicular access side of the block of banks in the city center. Although a massive infrastructure for motorized vehicles exists, even parking provision for the bicycles is highly inadequate. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 112: Communal water taps in the labor colony behind the University. Some University housing can be seen in the background, contrasting sharply with the standard of construction in the colony itself. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 113: A husband and wife build themselves a house in an unauthorized settlement in Sector 32. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 114: A rehri-wallah selling vegetables in front of the door in Sector 18. Another example of private housing built under “frame control.” (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 115: V4 shops in Sector 18 with a complementing cluster of rehris and open-air stalls. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 116: A minimal structure suffices for a small furniture workshop in Bajwara. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 117: Le Corbusier’s diagram depicting his role in the team at Chandigarh. (Courtesy of Archives Fondation Le Corbusier, ref. AW 21-Nov. 50.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 118: The lighter area represents the limits of the original periphery control zone. The darker patch in the center is the present area left under the control of the Chandigarh Administration. (Photograph by Madhu Sarin. Courtesy of Chandigarh Administration.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 119: Two master plans of Chandigarh: Alfred Mayer’s plan of 1950 and Le Corbusier’s modified plan of 1951. (Drawing by Narindar Lamba.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 120: Matthew Nowicki: sketch for the Secretariats and (in the background) the Assembly in Chandigarh’s Capitol complex, circa 1950. (Source: Evenson, Chandigarh, plate 6.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 121: Le Corbusier, plan for an organic, extensible city. (Source: Le Corbusier, La Ville radieuse, 1935, p. 168.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 122: Chandigarh: the Jan Marg, with brick walls separating the sectors from the traffic artery. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) Compare with Figure 127. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 123: Le Corbusier, Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants, 1922. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1910-29, p. 35.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 124: Rome, E.U.R.: master plan for the Esposizione Universale, to be held in 1941-1942 (project: 1937). Architects: Giuseppe Pagano, Marcello Piacentini, Luigi Piccinato, Ettore Rossi, and Luigi Vietti. (Source: La Casa, no. 6, Milan.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 125: Chandigarh: view of the Jan Marg, the city’s main axis. To the right, the Museum and Art Gallery. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 126: New Delhi: aerial view of the King’s Way and the Capitol. (Source: Butler, The Architecture of Sir Edwin Lutyens.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 127: Jaipur: typical street scene. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 128: New Delhi: Connaught Place. Architect: Sir Herbert Baker. (Photgraph by S. von Moos.) Compare with Figure 110. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 129: Chandigarh: plan of the Capitol complex. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1957-65, p. 73.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 130: Geneva: projects for the Palace of the League of Nations, 1927-1928; comparative study showing the similarity between Le Corbusier’s project and the finally chosen plan. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1910-29, p. 173.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 131: Signs drawn by Le Corbusier, to be cast in the concrete walls and knit in the tapestries of the palaces in Chandigarh’s Capitol. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1957-65, p. 111.) Compare these signs with the detail in Figure 142. [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 132: The Capitol, Chandigarh: view of the Assembly with ceremonial gate. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 133: Le Corbusier, studies for the light equipment of the Upper Chamber in the Assembly, 1954. (Source: Le Corbusier, My Work, 1960, p. 210.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 134: The Capitol, Chandigarh: view from the High Court toward the Assembly. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 135: Jaipur: astronomical observatory, 1718-1734. (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 136: New Delhi: aerial view of the Capitol complex. (Source: Butler, The Architecture of Sir Edwin Lutyens.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 137: The Capitol at New Delhi; Le Corbusier’s first project for the Capitol at Chandigarh; Le Corbusier’s final project for the Capitol at Chandigarh; all drawn to the same scale. (Source: A. Greenberg, in Perspecta, no. 12, 1969.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 138: Chandigarh: Le Corbusier’s project for the Governor’s Palace, “crowning the city,” May 1953. (Source: Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète 1946-52, p. 151.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 139: New Delhi: the Viceroy’s House, overlooking the Capitol. Architect: Sir Edwin Lutyens. (Source: Butler, The Architecture of Sir Edwin Lutyens.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 140: Louis XIV ordering the building of the Hotel des Invalides. The caption reads: “Homage to a great urbanist.” (Source: Le Corbusier, Urbanisme, 1925, p. 302.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 141: Le Corbusier explaining the High Court drawings to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. (Photograph by Narindar Lamba, 1952.) [visit Pub ↗]

Figure 142: Detail of the main façade of the Villa Fallet, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1906-1907. Architect: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier). (Photograph by S. von Moos.) [visit Pub ↗]

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